Category: bash

Using bash and gatttool to get readings from Xiaomi Mijia LYWSD03MMC Temperature Humidity sensor

There is a new inexpensive Temperature and humidity sensor by xiaomi.
This time is no longer round ,

Xiaomi Mijia LYWSD03MMC Bluetooth 4.2 Temperature Humidity sensor

if you like me would like to get the temperature and humidity data from time to time to import in a graphing tool like grafana, there is a simple solution using classic bash tools and gatttool.
First you have to indentify the mac-address of your little sensor, for this , just make sure the sensor is in range of your linux device ans launch a
hcitool lescann

this command will spit out all the bluetooth devices in range
just find the line with the name of the device and copy the mac address A4:C1:38:8C:77:CA LYWSD03MMC

then you must start a little bash script like this :

#!/bin/bash
bt=$(timeout 15 gatttool -b A4:C1:38:8C:77:CA --char-write-req --handle='0x0038' --value="0100" --listen)
if [ -z "$bt" ]
then
echo "The reading failed"
else
echo "Got data"
echo $bt temphexa=$(echo $bt | awk -F ' ' '{print $12$11}'| tr [:lower:] [:upper:] )

humhexa=$(echo $bt | awk -F ' ' '{print $13}'| tr [:lower:] [:upper:])
temperature100=$(echo "ibase=16; $temphexa" | bc)
humidity=$(echo "ibase=16; $humhexa" | bc)
echo "scale=2;$temperature100/100"|bc
echo $humidity
fi

this is a skeleton that you can improve , but for now it pretty much work like that ,

first it use gatttol to connect to the sensor and listen for 15 sec
During these fifteen seconds , you can be pretty much sure to receive at least some data like this :

Characteristic value was written successfully Notification handle = 0x0036 value: 58 03 47 a0 0b Notification handle = 0x0036 value: 55 03 47 a0 0b

this tell me that during the 15 sec of connection i received the information that i need two times.
what i’m after are the value 58 03 for the temperature , and 47 for the humidity.

the temperature is little endian format its mean that the two group must be inverted before decoding the data. i invert the values with awk and decode them using bc.
bc doesn’t like when the hex values are not capitalised so tr is used to do that.

bc then give you the temperature multiplied by 100. relaunch bc to divice per 100,

For the humidity its simpler , you get the value in one step without inverting anyting

Then you can do what you need with theses two vars , insert then in some database etc ..

there is room from improvement: for example this script is not capable of decoding negative temperature.
i will post an improved version when i figure out how to do it

bash : Random number in OpenWRT

On some light linux environement running busybox or openWRT you will notice that you don’t have access to the $RANDOM variable ,
the date command is also incomplete so you can’t use the tail of the nanosecond date to have a random number.

.

Using this command you will get a random number beetween 0 and 69.
if you wish to change the range of the random numbers , just edit the regex in the grep part

Using AWK to display the min the max and the average of a list

awk is a extremely powerful tool !
i’m always surprised how much you can do with it.

My latest finding is pretty amazing.

Lets say you have a list of numbers , and you want to figure out the bigger number , the lower number , and the average of all the numbers in the list.

you can use the following awk code to print minimum, maximum and average.

The output is going to  be :
avg 32.93 | max 100.1 | min 1.5

you can also use this code with decimal numbers

 

Use the keyboard on a remote machine over SSH?

If you use a Linux box to display some infos in a public space , you might not have the possibility to connect a mouse and keyboard every time you need to click on the page.

For example, at work we use a TV to display some metrics with grafana,
Sometime, when we reboot the machine , the identification cookie will be outdated and the browser will land on the authentication page instead.
Since the machine has no keyboard and mousse attached this cause some issues , .
So I’ve used the tool xdotool that allow a privileged ssh user or a script to interact with the mouse and keyboard

An important step is to select the screen on witch you want to send mouses clicks and keystrokes.

After that lets say your screen is displaying a full-screen browser with a login page ,
By default the cursor is already in the login form.

for the example , the login/password are going to be admin/admin

you are now logged and you dashboard will display

Bash keyboard shortcuts

When you are spending your day in the terminal , you will find that navigating using only the arrows keys although fine at the the start will frustrate you because it’s quite slow.
Bash come with a lot of keyboard shortcuts design to gain precious time.

CTRL+A # will move the cursour to the beginning of the line
CTRL+E # moves to end of line
CTRL+C # halts the current command and back to prompt
CTRL+D # deletes one character backward or logs out of current session, similar to exit
CTRL+K # deletes all the text forward to the end of the line
CTRL+L # clears screen and redisplay the line
CTRL+R # searches history entering keyword ,
CTRL+T # transposes two characters
CTRL+U # kills backward from point to the beginning of line
CTRL+W # kills the word behind the cursor

i’ve put in bold the shortcuts that i use every day , i don’t use CTRL+A and CTRL+E because the keyboard has keys that are foing the same thing.

Bash brace expansion. (to delete files)

In bash , it is common to have to do some action on a numéric serie of files , like deleting or renaming ,

Using brace expansion you will be able to générate a single line that will act on multiple targets ,

For our example , let’s think about a list of ten files

in the simple case where i want to delete the complete list of files, i just have to run de command,

The 10 files will be deleted, but , this is not practical if you want to keep the last file , and delete the other nine,

In that case we can use a usefull tool called brace expansion,

To delete the files 1 to 9 , i just have to run in my bash terminal!

This last one is extremely practical , I use it very often in a lot of different uses cases.

But in other cases , you may want to delete even on odd files , or one every three files,

This is also doable with braces expansions

Redirect stdout and stderr to a file

il you need to run a script unattended and wish to log the output of that script you must already know that you can simply do

the problem with that is you will not log the error messages , only the output messages ,
the error are going to be displayed on the terminal but , not logged
and the error message are often as important as the output message , we do not want to dismiss them from the log ,

the solution to that issue is to run the script using this

With this , both the output will be logged in to the log file.