Category: bash

bash : Random number in OpenWRT

On some light linux environement running busybox or openWRT you will notice that you don’t have access to the $RANDOM variable ,
the date command is also incomplete so you can’t use the tail of the nanosecond date to have a random number.

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Using this command you will get a random number beetween 0 and 69.
if you wish to change the range of the random numbers , just edit the regex in the grep part

Using AWK to display the min the max and the average of a list

awk is a extremely powerful tool !
i’m always surprised how much you can do with it.

My latest finding is pretty amazing.

Lets say you have a list of numbers , and you want to figure out the bigger number , the lower number , and the average of all the numbers in the list.

you can use the following awk code to print minimum, maximum and average.

The output is going to  be :
avg 32.93 | max 100.1 | min 1.5

you can also use this code with decimal numbers

 

Use the keyboard on a remote machine over SSH?

If you use a Linux box to display some infos in a public space , you might not have the possibility to connect a mouse and keyboard every time you need to click on the page.

For example, at work we use a TV to display some metrics with grafana,
Sometime, when we reboot the machine , the identification cookie will be outdated and the browser will land on the authentication page instead.
Since the machine has no keyboard and mousse attached this cause some issues , .
So I’ve used the tool xdotool that allow a privileged ssh user or a script to interact with the mouse and keyboard

An important step is to select the screen on witch you want to send mouses clicks and keystrokes.

After that lets say your screen is displaying a full-screen browser with a login page ,
By default the cursor is already in the login form.

for the example , the login/password are going to be admin/admin

you are now logged and you dashboard will display

Bash keyboard shortcuts

When you are spending your day in the terminal , you will find that navigating using only the arrows keys although fine at the the start will frustrate you because it’s quite slow.
Bash come with a lot of keyboard shortcuts design to gain precious time.

CTRL+A # will move the cursour to the beginning of the line
CTRL+E # moves to end of line
CTRL+C # halts the current command and back to prompt
CTRL+D # deletes one character backward or logs out of current session, similar to exit
CTRL+K # deletes all the text forward to the end of the line
CTRL+L # clears screen and redisplay the line
CTRL+R # searches history entering keyword ,
CTRL+T # transposes two characters
CTRL+U # kills backward from point to the beginning of line
CTRL+W # kills the word behind the cursor

i’ve put in bold the shortcuts that i use every day , i don’t use CTRL+A and CTRL+E because the keyboard has keys that are foing the same thing.

Bash brace expansion. (to delete files)

In bash , it is common to have to do some action on a numéric serie of files , like deleting or renaming ,

Using brace expansion you will be able to générate a single line that will act on multiple targets ,

For our example , let’s think about a list of ten files

in the simple case where i want to delete the complete list of files, i just have to run de command,

The 10 files will be deleted, but , this is not practical if you want to keep the last file , and delete the other nine,

In that case we can use a usefull tool called brace expansion,

To delete the files 1 to 9 , i just have to run in my bash terminal!

This last one is extremely practical , I use it very often in a lot of different uses cases.

But in other cases , you may want to delete even on odd files , or one every three files,

This is also doable with braces expansions

Redirect stdout and stderr to a file

il you need to run a script unattended and wish to log the output of that script you must already know that you can simply do

the problem with that is you will not log the error messages , only the output messages ,
the error are going to be displayed on the terminal but , not logged
and the error message are often as important as the output message , we do not want to dismiss them from the log ,

the solution to that issue is to run the script using this

With this , both the output will be logged in to the log file.

grafana service doesn’t auto start with the system

When installing grafana and influxDB. I encountered the folowing issue

The service of grafana and influxDB where not starting .

I checked using rcconf that my service where enabled , and they where !

I then tried sysv-rc-conf and my service where correctly configured !

the services had absolutely no issue starting when called manually and started fine !


this line was telling me that the service startup was disabled !

after seaching a bit on the web ,the solution to this issue is using systemctl to enables the services.

InfluxDB insert multiples values at once using curl

If you have to insert multiples values in an influxdb database. You can use curl and insert the values one at the time.

But there is a better way like in this example

Let’s say you want to insert your tree loadaverage values in you influxdb database.

First put them into variables using these 3 lines.

Then using this curl line, insert them all at once in your influxdb database